# F.A.Q

There are three hierarchical levels in a tree structure that expand the content on the page:

- Statistical topics: statistical topics are the largest groups. You can read about their content in detail on their summary page, we can examine the graphs highlighted in the topic. The related methodological descriptions apply equally to all publications in them.

- Statistical sub-topics: the narrower blocks under statistical topics, including publication topics.

- Publication topic: the category after the statistical subtopic, the lowest level. They can be linked to interactive graphs, press releases, have their own methodology, and have a set of diagrams. Publication topics can contain several updated time series excel files and publication glossary elements.

- Statistical topics: statistical topics are the largest groups. You can read about their content in detail on their summary page, we can examine the graphs highlighted in the topic. The related methodological descriptions apply equally to all publications in them.

- Statistical sub-topics: the narrower blocks under statistical topics, including publication topics.

- Publication topic: the category after the statistical subtopic, the lowest level. They can be linked to interactive graphs, press releases, have their own methodology, and have a set of diagrams. Publication topics can contain several updated time series excel files and publication glossary elements.

You may find them in the statistical publication calendar.

In the
release calendar for statistics.

Please visit the
website for data providers.

Generally speaking, the MNB complies statistics presenting financial trends and conditions (e.g. sectors’ receivables and
payables) while the HCSO compiles statistics presenting real economy trends (e.g. economic growth, inflation).

Statistics compiled by the MNB include: monetary statistics, balance of payments statistics, securities statistics, financial
accounts, payments statistics, supervisory statistics and other statistics necessary for the operation of the MNB.

Under the Information menu on the main page, you will find the Contact tab, which provides the contact details of the Magyar
Nemzeti Bank.

The MNB collects and publishes the data of all investment funds licensed in Hungary, while BAMOSZ only publishes the data
of funds managed by fund managers with membership in the Association.

The MNB collects and publishes the data of all investment funds licensed in Hungary.

The MNB publishes the data of investment funds monthly.

The differences are caused by the different measurement principles and the different range of reporting agents. The supervisory
data are compiled based on the Solvency II valuation rules.

The MNB collects the data of insurance corporations resident in Hungary, excluding their branches abroad, and the data of
Hungarian branch offices of insurance corporations with registered office abroad.

The MNB publishes the data of insurance corporations quarterly.

Not yet. However, together with the EU Member States the MNB also participates in the compilation of breakdowns requested
by the users, and within a few years it will separate new investments within FDI flows.

With one exception, the published data are the same as those reported by the data suppliers: the impairments recognised on
loans granted – and deposits placed – on the assets side and the balance of valuation differences – incurred due to the different
accounting and statistical valuation – in line with the international requirements – is transferred to the liability side
of the balance sheet and published together with the balance of provisions. Due to this the balance sheet total published
in the statistical series will be higher than the reported balance sheet total by the sum of the impairments and valuation
differences transferred to the liability side.

In the statistical data the principal receivables from the counterparties are stated for loans, i.e. the values stated under
loans do not contain the balance of accrued interests, impairments and valuation differences, arising as a methodological
difference in the accounting and statistical balance sheet.

Impairments and the balance of valuation differences – in line with the international requirements – are transferred to the liability side of the balance sheet, and published together with the balance of provisions, while the balance of accrued interests are stated under Remaining assets.

Impairments and the balance of valuation differences – in line with the international requirements – are transferred to the liability side of the balance sheet, and published together with the balance of provisions, while the balance of accrued interests are stated under Remaining assets.

Individual stocks are always allocated to maturity categories based on the contracted, original maturity. Accordingly, the
maturity of the individual items is constant in time.

In the reports underlying the publication, data suppliers provide the period-end closing balances of individual items, the
currency in which the individual balances are stated in their balance sheet, and the value of the price change/loan write-offs
and reclassifications/other adjustments related to the reporting period. The value of the monthly transactions is defined
based on these.

The value of – full or partial – loan write-offs in the reporting period, as well as the difference between the principal receivable and sales prices when selling loans are stated as price change in the publication.

Reclassifications and other adjustments include all flows in the reporting period that occurred for reasons other than change in exchange rate or prices, and which cannot be linked to a real economic event. These may include, for example, a change in the counterparty’s country or sector.

Transaction is defined in accordance with the methodology of the European Central Bank, i.e. the balance sheet method: transaction is the amount remaining after reducing flows by the amount resulting from the exchange rate change, the price change and other changes in volume.

The value of – full or partial – loan write-offs in the reporting period, as well as the difference between the principal receivable and sales prices when selling loans are stated as price change in the publication.

Reclassifications and other adjustments include all flows in the reporting period that occurred for reasons other than change in exchange rate or prices, and which cannot be linked to a real economic event. These may include, for example, a change in the counterparty’s country or sector.

Transaction is defined in accordance with the methodology of the European Central Bank, i.e. the balance sheet method: transaction is the amount remaining after reducing flows by the amount resulting from the exchange rate change, the price change and other changes in volume.

In the case loans net repayment means when the transaction of loans is negative, i.e. the sum of repayments in the reporting
period exceeds the sum of disbursements. When in a given period the amount of disbursements exceeds repayments, i.e. the transaction
of loans is a positive amount, there was net disbursement in period under review.

It works similarly in the case of deposits on the liability side: net inflows means that in the period under review the stock of deposits placed exceeds the deposits withdrawn by the counterparties (i.e. the transaction value of deposits is positive), while net withdrawal means that the sum of withdrawals exceeds the sum of new deposits placed in the period (i.e. the transaction calculated for the period is negative).

It works similarly in the case of deposits on the liability side: net inflows means that in the period under review the stock of deposits placed exceeds the deposits withdrawn by the counterparties (i.e. the transaction value of deposits is positive), while net withdrawal means that the sum of withdrawals exceeds the sum of new deposits placed in the period (i.e. the transaction calculated for the period is negative).

Seasonal adjustment is performed by a software that analyses time series relying on mathematical models, identifies the recurring
periodic – i.e. seasonal – effects, and adjusts the time series for such effects.

In the case of the loans and deposits of non-financial corporations and households seasonal adjustment is performed on transaction data, while in the case of amounts of money supply we examine the seasonal features of stocks.

For example, the original transaction data of non-financial corporations’ loans clearly show that the values registered in December fall short of the values registered in November every year. The software identifies this seasonal decline by a mathematical model adapted to the time series and when performing the adjustment it "reduces the seasonal decline in transactions", i.e. smoothes the movements due to seasonal changes.

Another graphic example is the seasonal adjustment of currency in circulation: the volume of currency in circulation soars every year around Christmas, and then in January there is a large fall compared to the December level. When performing the seasonal adjustment, the software smoothes this (seasonal) fluctuation, observed every year, i.e. the adjustment here as well is based on the principle that “if it were not for Christmas, there would be no outliers and the holding would grow steadily.” This process is easy to trace in the seasonally adjusted time series.

Accordingly, after removing the seasonal changes we get time series where the data from adjacent periods are more comparable.

The seasonal adjustment is performed by the JDemetra+ application, which adapts an optimal mathematical model to the time series.

In the case of the loans and deposits of non-financial corporations and households seasonal adjustment is performed on transaction data, while in the case of amounts of money supply we examine the seasonal features of stocks.

For example, the original transaction data of non-financial corporations’ loans clearly show that the values registered in December fall short of the values registered in November every year. The software identifies this seasonal decline by a mathematical model adapted to the time series and when performing the adjustment it "reduces the seasonal decline in transactions", i.e. smoothes the movements due to seasonal changes.

Another graphic example is the seasonal adjustment of currency in circulation: the volume of currency in circulation soars every year around Christmas, and then in January there is a large fall compared to the December level. When performing the seasonal adjustment, the software smoothes this (seasonal) fluctuation, observed every year, i.e. the adjustment here as well is based on the principle that “if it were not for Christmas, there would be no outliers and the holding would grow steadily.” This process is easy to trace in the seasonally adjusted time series.

Accordingly, after removing the seasonal changes we get time series where the data from adjacent periods are more comparable.

The seasonal adjustment is performed by the JDemetra+ application, which adapts an optimal mathematical model to the time series.

In the section entitled “Interest rates, money and capital market data” we publish, among other things, the amounts of households’
and non-financial corporations’ new loan and deposit contracts in the individual periods, and the interest rates on the loans
and deposits in the individual categories.

Detailed data on the past-due days of household loans, the composition of flows and the due date of the cash flows in the period until maturity are published in the section entitled “Financial stability statistics”.

The section entitled “Supervisory statistics” contain further breakdown of the loans of non-financial corporations.

Detailed data on the past-due days of household loans, the composition of flows and the due date of the cash flows in the period until maturity are published in the section entitled “Financial stability statistics”.

The section entitled “Supervisory statistics” contain further breakdown of the loans of non-financial corporations.

The government debt data are included in the financial accounts, within the detailed general government data.

The stock of households’ financial assets and liabilities is shown in the financial accounts. Financial accounts also present
the underlying reasons for the change in stock of financial assets and liabilities (i.e. due to transactions, revaluation
or other, technical reasons).

The securities statistics presents debt securities issued by resident economic agents as well as – within equity securities
– quoted shares and mutual fund shares, in a breakdown by issuers and holders.

Yes. From time to time, data may differ from those published earlier due to taking into consideration modifying reports, if
any, related to previous periods.

Yes. For this you need to choose the “Display as table” option by right-clicking on the graph. To return to the interactive
graph, choose the “Back to report” option.

Yes. The text information belonging to each leaflet of the interactive press releases and informations is available as continuous
text in pdf formatted version.

Time series of supervised institutions are prepared using data reported by the supervised institutions, according to the
prescription for financial organisations by the MNB’s (formerly HFSA) supervisory decrees and by EU laws.

Due to data protection reasons it is not possible to disclose individual data of institutions. Only in the soo-called “Golden
Book” do we publish individual data, which are public anyway .

Unpublished data are not disclosed upon individual request, but during the scheduled review of the content of time series,
the published content is expanded from time to time with data and breakdowns of public interest.

The interest rate statistics shows the new contracts concluded in the given month rather than the disbursements in the reporting
month. Accordingly, it may happen that the turnover of the given month also includes contracts under which actual disbursement
will be made only in the period after the reporting month (or not at all). This is due to the fact that the purpose of the
interest rate statistics is primarily to monitor the pricing of loans and deposits based on the new agreements in the given
month rather than to explain the monthly growth in the stock.

The annualised percentage rate of charge (APRC) is an indicator used in interest rate statistics data collections, which serves
the presentation of the borrowing costs related to the new contract. The cost of borrowing indicator is governed by the provisions
of Government Decree 83/2010. (III. 25.) on the Definition, Calculation and Announcement of the Annual Percentage Rate Indicator,
with the following differences:

- when calculating the annualised percentage rate of charge, the individual conditions stipulated in the contract must be taken into consideration, i.e. it also includes the conditional interest subsidies;

- in the case of subsidised schemes, for the purposes of calculating the annualised percentage rate of charge, it presents the interest rate adjusted for the interest subsidy for housing loans and for the sellers contribution for hire purchase loans.

- when calculating the annualised percentage rate of charge, the individual conditions stipulated in the contract must be taken into consideration, i.e. it also includes the conditional interest subsidies;

- in the case of subsidised schemes, for the purposes of calculating the annualised percentage rate of charge, it presents the interest rate adjusted for the interest subsidy for housing loans and for the sellers contribution for hire purchase loans.

The data of restructured loans are eliminated from the data published in the interest rate statistics publication and in the
time series. New contracts include – apart from the entirely new agreements – only the renegotiated loans.

Pursuant to the interest rate statistics requirements, in the case of overdrafts, sight deposits and current accounts, the
balances at end of the respective month are stated as new contracts. For these instruments, the contracted interest rate corresponds
to the month-end interest rates on the balances.

There are two types of revolving credit lines.

1.) Revolving loans of overdraft nature, which are not included in the interest rate statistics reports as new contracts.

2.) Revolving loans other than overdrafts, which are classified as other loans. Usually the FGS credit lines can be also allocated to this category, which are stated in the interest statistical data as new contracts.

1.) Revolving loans of overdraft nature, which are not included in the interest rate statistics reports as new contracts.

2.) Revolving loans other than overdrafts, which are classified as other loans. Usually the FGS credit lines can be also allocated to this category, which are stated in the interest statistical data as new contracts.

Stock data breaking down by country is available at the following

The report below contains M&A flows within the
FDI flows.

Yes, the data are available in the following report. LINK

In the Help menu on the main page, you will find the Publication Glossary, which contains explanations of the most important
definitions.

The latest news can be found on the main page. If you want to read previous news, click on "All news", where you can search
for news.

Data, time series and individual publications can be downloaded by clicking on the download icon next to them.

Yes, the data are available in the
following report.